Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an early and sensitive blood biomarker for tissue injury and inflammation and has been indicated in many inflammatory diseases. The level of SAA circulating in the blood is known to increase dramatically in response to tissue damage or inflammation, classifying it as an acute phase protein. Circulating SAA concentrations may increase up to 1000-fold following inflammation, infection, tissue injury and cell necrosis and decline rapidly following recovery.
It has also been observed in several veterinary species including the horse that SAA is a very useful inflammatory marker that may be used for detection of clinical and possibly subclinical disease, monitoring of disease activity and response to therapy, prognostication, and detection of spread of infections in herds (Nielsen et al., 2004).
Latex agglutination test based on optical measurement of the change in turbidity caused by the agglutination of the latex particles sensitised with SAA antibodies.