Glucose is the major carbohydrate present in the peripheral blood. Oxidation of glucose is the major source of cellular energy in the body. Glucose derived from dietary sources is converted to glycogen for storage in the liver or to fatty acids for storage in adipose tissue. The concentration of glucose in blood is controlled within narrow limits by many hormones, the most important of which are produced by the pancreas1.
The most frequent cause of hyperglycemia is diabetes mellitus resulting from a deficiency in insulin secretion or action. A number of secondary factors also contribute to elevated blood glucose levels. These include pancreatitis, thyroid dysfunction, renal failure, and liver disease.
Hypoglycemia is less frequently observed. A variety of conditions may cause low blood glucose levels such as insulinoma, hypopituitarism, or insulin induced hypoglycemia2. Glucose measurement in urine is used as a diabetes screening procedure and to aid in the evaluation of glucosuria, to detect renal tubular defects, and in the management of diabetes mellitus. Glucose measurement in cerebrospinal fluid is used for evaluation of meningitis, neoplastic involvement of meninges, and other neurological disorders3.