Holmium laser is a solid-state and pulsed laser, usually abbreviated as ho:YAG laser. This laser emits light at a wavelength of 2.1um, and can transmit through optical fibers which makes holmium laser highly suitable for endoscopic surgery in manly clinical specialties, and currently mostly used are in urology for treatment of stones, BPH and tumors. In recent years, holmium laser treatment has spread out to many other specialties like Gastroenterology, Neurology, Pulmonology, Orthopedics, Hemorrhoid and Piles etc.
Holmium Laser working principle:
The holmium laser, with a wavelength of 2.1um, is highly absorbed by water and has a very shallow penetration depth of approximately 0.4 mm. As a pulsed laser, it reduces deeper thermal effects and charring which are much more prevalent in continuous wave lasers. The shallow penetration depth minimizes the coagulation zone and collateral damage to sensitive surrounding tissue, so it can achieve clean and precise incision and tissue vaporization (ablation). The controlled penetration depth together with the water absorption characteristics reduce the energy to non-targeted tissue, contributing to the safety profile of the procedure. Hemostasis is achieved through modulating laser parameters and focal distance. Meanwhile, the thermal effect, created by laser energy that is absorbed by the water contained in the stones, as well as the stone composites, can be used to break stones of any size or composition, making holmium lasers the best choice for laser lithotripsy.